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Stanford Memory Trends

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latest version

Download the 2022 Memory


The Stanford Memory Trends is a compilation of tables and figures summarizing the various memory metrics reported for RRAM, PCM, CBRAM and STTMRAM. In the latest version, we also include standalone memory selector, IPCM, hybrid 1S1R cell and analog RRAM that shows gradual conductance modulation characteristics in separate sheets. The tables include commonly sought parameters (including write current, cell size, switching time, endurance, retention etc.) presented in conferences and journals including IEDMVLSI and ISSCC from 2001 and onward. The figures capture the high level trends of how certain parameters correlate to each other (such as cell area vs write energy).

This is a living document. Please check back for updates periodically.

note on usage

If you use the data in a publication or a presentation, please cite this work:

H.-S. P. Wong, C. Ahn, M. Beauchamp, J. Cao, H.-Y. Chen, W. C. Chen, S. B. Eryilmaz, S. W. Fong, W. Hwang, J. A. Incorvia, R. Islam, Z. Jiang, H. Li, S. Liu, C. Neumann, K. Okabe, S. Qin, Y. C. Shen, M. Shi, J. Sohn, M. Tung, W. Wan, X. Wu, Y. Wu, S. Yu, Z. Yu, X. Zheng, “Stanford Memory Trends,”, accessed June 6, 2022.

older versions

2020 Memory Trends zip file

2018 Memory Trends zip file

2017 Memory Trends zip file

2015 Memory Trends zip file

2015 powerpoint slides with a summary of key data.


contacts for inquiries

PCM/STTMRAM - Wei Chen Chen - weichen9 [at] stanford [dot] edu
CBRAM/selector/1S1R - Sophia Shengjun Qin - sjqin [at] stanford [dot] edu
Analog RRAM - Weier Wan - weierwan [at] stanford [dot] edu
RRAM - Xin Zheng - xzheng3 [at] stanford [dot] edu

content snippets

2016 table
Total portrait interconnect
All memory capacity graph